Chromabond® and Chromafix®

SPE – Solid Phase Extraction Cartridges

Proven performance in SPE since 1987

Macherey-Nagel SPE products high purity SPE cartridges for sample preparation provide an economical and effective solution for isolation and purification of your sample before downstream analytical instrument methods.

Our SPE cartridges are available as adsorbents based on polymer resins, surface-modified silica materials as well as Florisil®, polyamide, and aluminum oxide.

Choose the best phase for applications in pharmaceutics, environmental analysis, and ion chromatography.

CHROMABOND® SPE is offered in an extraction column format (polypropylene or glass) as CHROMAFIX® cartridges with Luer fittings (sizes S, M, L (0.4 – 1.8ml)) or as 96 well-filtration plates.

Features of Chromabond® and Chromafix® SPE Portfolio

  • Wide range of over 25 adsorbents to meet any application need
  • Column, well plate, and cartridge formats
  • Highly reproducible recovery rates; cartridge to cartridge, lot to lot
  • Available in silica and polymer-based phases for reverse phase, ion exchange, and specific-application needs
Retention of Analytes

Molecular interactions in SPE
SPE adsorbents are most commonly categorized by the nature of their primary interaction mechanism with the analyte of interest. The three most common extraction mechanisms used in SPE are reversed-phase (RP), normal phase (NP) and ion exchanger.

Typical Extraction Mechanisms:

  • Reversed-Phase Extraction of hydrophobic or polar organic analytes from an aqueous matrix
  • Normal Phase Extraction of polar analytes from nonpolar organic solvents
  • Ion Exchanger Extraction of charged analytes from aqueous or non-polar organic samples

Types of Retention Mechanisms

Nonpolar interactions

  • Silica Based: C18 ec, C18, C18 Hydra, C8,…
  • Polymer-based: HR-X, HR-P, Easy, PS-RP
  • Interactions: Hydrophobic
  • Sample: Mostly aqueous
  • Elution: Solvents with lower polarity (compared to water) MeOH, CH2Cl2, CHCl3,… hexane
Polar interactions

  • Silica Based: SiOH, CN, NH2, OH (diol), C6H5,…
  • Other: Alox, Florisil ®
  • Interactions: Hyrdogen bonds, dipole-dipole, and π-π interactions
  • Sample: Mostly organic
  • Elution: Polar solvents (compared to sample solvent) (nonprotic) ethers, ketones (MTBE, THF, acetone,…) CH2Cl2, CHCl3
Cation Exchangers

  • Silica Based: SSA (SCX), PCA (WCX), PSA
  • Polymer-based: HR-XC, HR-XCW, PS-H+
  • Interactions: Between charged analytes and functional groups of cation exchanger
  • Sample: Aqueous (pH 3-5)
  • Elution: Acidic- pH 2 (e.g. HCl, or 20% AcPH in MeOH/acetonitrile)
    Basic- pH 8-9 (e.g. 5% NH3 in MeOH/acetonitrile)
    Solvents or buffers with higher ionic strength and counter ions with high selectivity (e.g. Ca2+)
Anion Exchangers

  • Silica Based: SB (SAX), NH2, DMA
  • Polymer-based: HR-XA, HR-XAW, PS-OH,…
  • Interactions: Between charged analytes and functional groups of anion exchanger
  • Sample: Aqueous (pH 8-9)
  • Elution: Basic- pH 10 (e.g. 20% NH3 in MeOH/acetonitrile) Acidic- pH 4-5 (e.g. HCl, or 5% AcOH in MeOH/acetonitrile) Solvents or buffers with higher ionic strength and counter ions with high selectivity (e.g. Citrate)

It should be noted, that in SPE the interactions described above are not found in pure form, but in combination. For example, modified silicas, unless they have been subjected to endcapping (silanization of residual silanol groups with short-chain silanes), still possess free silanol groups, which can enter into secondary interactions.

Sample Pretreatment
For direct extraction with adsorbents the sample matrix (sample environment) has to fulfill three conditions:

  • The matrix has to be liquid, if possible with low viscosity
  • Solids should be removed from the liquid matrix
  • The matrix (sample environment) should be suitable for retention of the analyte

For solid samples there are different methods to convert the sample into a suitable matrix:

  • Dissolution of the solid sample in a suitable solvent
  • Lyophilisation of the sample and dissolution in a suitable solvent
  • Extraction of the solid sample with a suitable solvent
  • Homogenization of the sample in a suitable solvent

In order to find the suitable solvent, one has to consider all desired sample components. Also, a suitable solvent should enhance the retention of the analyte. For example, samples with large contents of solids are often homogenized in nonpolar solvents like hexane, while for samples with high water content dissolution in acids, bases, buffers or very polar solvents such as methanol are recommended.

Additionally, SPE allows one to alter the properties of the sample matrix. If, for example, natural products are extracted with methanol or acetone, the polarity of the extracts can be increased by dilution with water, in order to enhance nonpolar solid-phase extraction on the C18 material.

Chromabond® Polypropylene Columns

  • PP columns with PE filter elements
  • Different sizes from 1, 3, 6 up to 150 ml
  • Adsorbent weights from 20 mg to 50 g
  • Male luer tip as exit
  • Compatible with most robots (e. g. Gilson ASPEC™, Caliper AutoTrace®, …)
Chromabond® Glass Columns

  • Glass columns with chemically very inert glass fiber
  • Filter elements (nominal pore size 1 µm)
  • Two different sizes: 3 and 6 ml
  • Available with all CHROMABOND® phases
  • Excludes any influence from the column material (e. g. plasticizers, …)
Chromafix® Cartridges

  • PP cartridges with PE filter elements
  • Three different sizes with different adsorbent weights: Small (0.4 ml), Medium (0.8 ml), Large (1.8 ml)
  • Female Luer tip at the inlet, male Luer tip as exit
  • Offers an alternative way of handling using positive pressure by syringes or peristaltic pumps
  • Especially suited for convenient solid-phase extraction of small sample volumes
Chromabond® LV Columns

  • Large volume PP columns with PE filter elements
  • Three different adsorbent weights (100, 200 and 500 mg)
  • funnel-shaped reservoir with 15 ml volume
  • Especially for the clinical samples-the whole sample (e. g. urine, serum, blood) can be applied to the column in one step
  • Can be directly used in the Zymate® lab robots of Zymark
Chromabond® Multi 96- SPE in 96-Well format

  • 96-well polypropylene plates with PE filter elements
  • Cavity volume of 1.5 ml
  • Adsorbent weights from 25 to 100 mg
  • Supplied with any CHROMABOND® SPE adsorbents
  • For simultaneous preparation of 96 samples
  • Easy method transfer from CHROMABOND® columns or CHROMAFIX® cartridges to CHROMABOND® MULTI 96
  • Readily adaptable to all common automated/robotic handling systems