Solvent Evaporation, Rotary Evaporators, Rotavaps

Rotary evaporators (also called "rotavaps") are used to remove solvents from reaction mixtures and can accommodate volumes as large as 3 liters. They are found in almost every organic laboratory, since they allow performing this task very quickly. A typical rotary evaporator has a water bath that can be heated in either a metal container or crystallization dish. This keeps the solvent from freezing during the evaporation process. The solvent is removed under vacuum, is trapped by a condenser and is collected for easy reuse or disposal. Most labs use a simple water aspirator vacuum on their rotavaps, so a rotavap cannot be used for air and water-sensitive materials unless special precautions are taken i.e. additional traps are used. In the lab, the house vacuum line, a circulation bath or a membrane pump are used as source for the vacuum (40-50 torr). The fact that a vacuum is usually applied to the setup means that the boiling points of the solvents are going to be significantly lower than at ambient pressure.

Since the flask is rotated during the evaporation process, the surface area is larger than normal which increases the evaporation rate significantly. The solvent is collected in a flask and can properly be disposed off afterwards (organic solvent waste). In addition, this method also avoids overheating of the target compound i.e. oxidation because lower temperatures are used. The same rules like for vacuum filtrations apply here in terms of the glassware and other precautions i.e no cracks on the flask, etc.